Smokeless powders designed for use in small arms ammunition are exempt from regulation under 18 U.S.C. Chapter 40 and the regulations in 27 CFR Part 555. Packaging that readily identifies the smokeless powder as being designed for use in small arms ammunition may help in determining whether it is entitled to the exemption. Smokeless powder designed for use other than in small arms ammunition, and explosive products such as squibs, fireworks, theatrical special effects, or other articles that may contain smokeless powders, are regulated and must be stored pursuant to the regulations at 27 CFR 555, Subpart K – Storage.
It should be noted that persons engaged in the business of importing or manufacturing smokeless powder designed for any use must have a Federal explosives license. Further, importers of smokeless powder designed for use in small arms ammunition must also possess an ATF firearms importers license (Type 08 or 11); must register with ATF under the provisions of the Arms Export Control Act; and must submit (to ATF) and receive an approved ATF Form 6 – part I (5330.3A), Application and Permit for Importation of Firearms Ammunition and Implements of War.